The expression academic journal applies to scholarly books in all areas; this report discusses the aspects common to most academic discipline journals. Scientific journals and journals from this qualitative social sciences change in function and form from journals of their humanities and qualitative social sciences; their particular facets are individually discussed.

The first completely peer reviewed diary was Medical Essays and Observations (1733). An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical book where scholarship regarding a certain academic field is printed. Academic journals function as permanent and clear forums for the demonstration, evaluation, and discussion of study. They are normally peer reviewed or refereed. Content normally takes the kind of articles demonstrating first research, review posts , and publication reviews.

The objective of an academic journal, based on Henry Oldenburg (the first editor of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society), would be to provide researchers a place to“impart their knowledge to another, and donate what they could into the Grand style of improving natural knowledge, and refining all Philosophical Arts, and Sciences.”